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Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Feb;54(1):61-83. doi: 10.1080/10409238.2019.1570075. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Epigenetic changes during aging and their reprogramming potential.

Author information

1
a Department of Genetics , Harvard Medical School , Boston , MA , USA.
2
b Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney , Sydney , Australia.
3
c Department of Pharmacology , The University of New South Wales , Sydney , Australia.

Abstract

The aging process results in significant epigenetic changes at all levels of chromatin and DNA organization. These include reduced global heterochromatin, nucleosome remodeling and loss, changes in histone marks, global DNA hypomethylation with CpG island hypermethylation, and the relocalization of chromatin modifying factors. Exactly how and why these changes occur is not fully understood, but evidence that these epigenetic changes affect longevity and may cause aging, is growing. Excitingly, new studies show that age-related epigenetic changes can be reversed with interventions such as cyclic expression of the Yamanaka reprogramming factors. This review presents a summary of epigenetic changes that occur in aging, highlights studies indicating that epigenetic changes may contribute to the aging process and outlines the current state of research into interventions to reprogram age-related epigenetic changes.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; DNA methylation; chromatin; clock; epigenetics; histones; reprogramming; sirtuins

PMID:
30822165
PMCID:
PMC6424622
[Available on 2020-03-01]
DOI:
10.1080/10409238.2019.1570075
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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