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J Hum Nutr Diet. 2019 Jun;32(3):349-355. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12640. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Impacts of skipping breakfast and late dinner on the incidence of being overweight: a 3-year retrospective cohort study of men aged 20-49 years.

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The Graduate School of Environmental Health, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Japan.
Department of Health Informatics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan.



Most studies on the dietary habits and overweight status of men aged 20-49 years have been cross-sectional, with longitudinal studies being scarce. One-quarter of Japanese men aged 20-49 years skip breakfast or have dinner within 2 h of bedtime (late dinner); therefore, the effects of these eating habits on men's increasing body weight need to be determined.


We conducted a retrospective cohort study using health check-up data provided from several health insurance societies in Japan. Participants comprised 45 524 men employees aged 20-49 years who were followed up for 3 years. The primary outcome investigated was body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg m-2 . We conducted a multivariable logistic regression analysis and calculated the odds ratios for skipping breakfast and late dinner, as well as baseline age, body mass index, smoking status, eating speed, snack-eating status, alcohol drinking frequency, physical activity, sleep habits, and the interaction between skipping breakfast and late dinner.


Of the participants, 17 706 (38.8%) skipped breakfast and 25 987 (57.1%) had a late dinner. At the 3-year follow-up, 5093 (11.2%) had a BMI ≥25 kg m-2 . The odds ratios of men skipping breakfast and having a late dinner were 1.18 (95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.33) and 0.92 (95% confidence interval = 0.84-1.01), respectively. The interaction between these factors was nonsignificant.


We suggest that skipping breakfast among men aged 20-49 years was one predictor of being overweight; however, having dinner within 2 h of bedtime was not a predictor.


breakfast; eating habit; late dinner; overweight


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