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J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2019 Apr;24(2):e12236. doi: 10.1111/jspn.12236. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Bronchoalveolar lavage with pediatric flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope in pediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: Nursing considerations for operative complications.

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Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.



Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with pediatric flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FB) is used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in pediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with pulmonary complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate complications in pediatric HSCT patients undergoing BAL/FB and to explore the nursing emphases on complications.


We performed a retrospective, case-controlled study to evaluate perioperative complications of HSCT children. BAL/FB was conducted for 42 children with HSCT who experienced pulmonary complications between January 2017 and January 2018 within a tertiary hospital. Forty patients diagnosed with general pneumonia were randomly selected during the same period and served as the control group. We analyzed the signs and symptoms of all patients and compared the operative complications between the two groups. Furthermore, we presented the methods used to manage complications.


The presence of cough, lung rales, and imaging findings in the HSCT patients was significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.0001). The complication rate was 66.67% (28/42) in the HSCT group and 22.5% (9/40) in the control group, and the difference was significant (p < 0.0001). Twelve out of 42 HSCT patients experienced airway mucosal bleeding (28.57%), and six had transient fever (14.29%). The topical use of epinephrine diluted saline (1:10,000) was highly effective for controlling airway mucosal bleeding without causing fluctuations in blood pressure.


There were more perioperative complications in the HSCT patients than in the general pneumonia patients who underwent BAL/FB. Airway mucosal bleeding was a key focus of perioperative nursing in HSCT patients undergoing bronchoscopy as main complication. BAL with the use of epinephrine diluted saline (1:10,000) effectively decreased airway mucosal bleeding.


bronchoalveolar lavage; bronchoscopy; complication; haematopoietic stem cell transplant; pediatrics


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