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Biol Eng Med. 2018 Jun;3(3). doi: 10.15761/BEM.1000S1003. Epub 2018 May 24.

Muscle and skin improve by home-based FES and full-body in-bed gym.

U C1,2,3, G A4, P G5, B R1,2, F P3, S Z1,6, H K6, Pond A7.

Author information

Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology (CIR-Myo), Department of Biomedical Science, University of Padova, Italy.
A&C M-C Foundation for Translational Myology, Padova, Italy.
IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale San Camillo, Venezia-Lido, Italy.
Section of Anatomy, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padova, Italy.
Institute for Biomedical and Neural Engineering/Biomedical Technology Centre Reykjavik University and Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Physiko- und Rheumatherapie, St. Poelten, Austria.
Anatomy Department, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, Il, USA.


All progressive muscle contractile impairments, including advanced age-related muscle power decline, need permanent management. Most elderly persons, in particular octogenarians, spend small amounts of time in daily physical activity, resulting in a decline in body condition with more and more frequent hospitalizations and finally potentially forcing them to bed permanently. Further several neurological injuries, which are even more acutely debilitating than those problems related to aging, are responsible for early limitation of mobility. Inspired by the proven capability to recover skeletal muscle contractility and strength by home-based functional electrical stimulation (h-bFES) in both elderly and SCI patients, we suggest that the elderly and early aging patients participate in hbFES and add a 20 min daily routine of 12 easy and safe physical exercises, namely home-based Full-Body In-Bed Gym. Continued regularly, h-bFES and the Full-Body In-Bed Gym will help to maintain the independence of frail older people and may reduce the risks of serious consequences of accidental falls and pressure sore complications.


Full-Body In-Bed Gym; atrophy; borderline mobility impaired persons; elderly; h-bFES; muscle; skin

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of interest The authors declare none conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

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