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Int J Prev Med. 2019 Feb 12;10:22. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_410_17. eCollection 2019.

Continuous Movement Monitoring of Daily Living Activities for Prevention of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Review of Literature.

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Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Diabetes Unit, St. Jacopo Hospital, Pistoia, Italy.
Tuscany Regional Health Agency, Florence, Italy.
ANIMO Association, Reggello, Italy.


Lower extremity ulcers represent the most ominous, feared, and costly complications of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of daily life physical activities (PAs) and continuous movement monitoring (CMM) in the prevention of foot ulcers. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute, in turn, to the development of additional risk factors such as foot deformities and/or joint and muscular alterations. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture abnormalities, followed by gait alterations, increases the risk of ulceration. PA can play a key role in the management of patients with diabetes and in the prevention of ulcers; however, even if it has been reported that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET), the real preventive role of ET has not yet been demonstrated. These uncertain results can occur due to some limitations in the management of the same relationship between PA and diabetic foot prevention. Technological advances during the last years enable timely management of overall daily PA. The use of these modern technologies and devices allows CMM assessment and description of daily PA even in the long term. The data collected from these devices can be used to properly manage patients' PA and thus contribute to the prevention of foot ulcers.


Continuous movement monitoring; daily lifestyle; diabetic foot ulcer; exercise therapy; physical activity; prevention

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