Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Prev Med. 2019 Feb 12;10:20. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_464_18. eCollection 2019.

Ocular Manifestations in Hemodialysis Patients: Importance of Ophthalmic Examination in Prevention of Ocular Sequels.

Author information

Department of Ophthalmology, Isfahan Eye Research Center, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of Internal Medicine, Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan, Iran.
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.
Isfahan Eye Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.



Hemodialysis (HD)-associated ocular abnormalities are one of the causes of morbidity among people undergoing HD. This study evaluates the frequency of ocular abnormalities in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing HD and their potential link to HD and demographic parameters.


This cross-sectional study examined 242 eyes of 121 patients with ESRD undergoing regular HD after excluding the ineligible subjects. The study was designed in two parts. Medical histories of each patient including age, gender, family history, medication history, past medical history, and duration of HD collected using a structured check list. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination for evaluation of the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and anterior and posterior segments.


In total, 121 patients, including 68 (56.2%) males and 53 (43.8%) females, were enrolled in the study. The mean ± SD age of the patients and their mean duration of dialysis were 51.59 ± 16.01 and 3.40 ± 2.75 years, respectively. The most prevalent etiology for HD was diabetes mellitus (39.67%), followed by hypertension (38.84%), and the most common ocular findings included cataract (142 eyes; 58.7%) and ectopic calcification of the conjunctiva and cornea (78 eyes; %32.2). There was at least one abnormal ocular finding in 89.3% of the cases. The BCVA was equal to or less than finger count in 70 eyes (28.92%). There was a significant relationship between conjunctival calcification and the duration of dialysis (P = 0.02). There was significant association between etiology of HD and conjunctival calcification (adjusted odds ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.05-5.67; and P value, 0.03). Such significant associations were present for corneal calcification (P = 0.009), cataract (P = 0.02), and optic atrophy (P = 0.01).


Regular ophthalmologic examinations are recommended due to the prevalence of clinical ocular abnormalities in HD patients.


Diabetic retinopathy; eye disease; kidney disease; kidney failure; renal dialysis

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center