Send to

Choose Destination
Indian J Palliat Care. 2019 Jan-Mar;25(1):46-51. doi: 10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_126_18.

Validity and Reliability of 11-face Faces Pain Scale in the Iranian Elderly Community with Chronic Pain.

Author information

Department of Gerontology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Gerontology and Geriatric Department, Medical School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Elderly Health Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Imam Ali Cardiovascular Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.



Accurate pain assessment in elderly population is essential for pain management and nurses have a pivotal role. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale (FPS-11) is a well-established pain assessment measure that has not been validated in the Iranian elderly.


The aim was to study the property assessment of the Iranian version of FPS-11 (FPS-11-IR) among elderly outpatients with chronic pain.


This is a cross-sectional validation study that conducted in three outpatient clinics in Tehran, Iran, in 2017. Older people aged ≥60 years (n = 217) with chronic knee pain due to degenerative joint disease were participated. The construct validity was examined by applying contrast constructs, and the face validity was determined by rank-ordering test. To assess concurrent validity, the Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the scores of 11-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and FPS-11-IR. Test-retest reliability was determined in 1-week interval.


Most of elderly participants (72%) agreed that pain construct displays in faces of the FPS-11-IR and participants" agreement on face rank ordering were vary for each face, ranging from 80% to 100%. Spearman's correlation coefficient between FPS-11-IR and NRS scores was very strong (r = 0.91, P < 0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficient between test-retest scores was 0.96 that indicates excellent reliability.


The FPS-11-IR is a reliable and valid pain assessment scale to use in geriatric patients chronic pain.


Aged; Faces Pain Scale; pain measurement; validity

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center