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J Conserv Dent. 2019 Jan-Feb;22(1):97-101. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_394_18.

Effects of fruit vinegars on root dentin microhardness and roughness.

Author information

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.



The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of newly proposed irrigants; the pomegranate, apple cider, and grape vinegars in comparison with contemporary irrigants; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and octenidine-hydrochloride (OCT) on microhardness and surface roughness of human root canal dentin.

Subjects and Methods:

The crowns of the 105 mandibular incisor teeth were removed, and roots were separated longitudinally. Root halves were embedded in acrylic-resin and were ground flat. The specimens were randomly divided into following six test groups (n = 30); pomegranate vinegar, apple cider vinegar, grape vinegar, 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, OCT and a control group based on the treatment time, samples were then divided into two subgroups (15 min or 30 min). Each specimen was first subjected to surface roughness and then Vickers microhardness testing. The data were statistically analyzed.


Pomegranate, apple cider, and grape vinegars exhibited similar roughness values (P > 0.05) and presented higher results than other groups (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the microhardness values of the irrigant groups (P > 0.05). The microhardness decreased when the exposure time increased from 15 min to 30 min (P < 0.05).


The use of vinegar for endodontic irrigation may have a softening effect on root canal dentin with time and may increase dentin roughness.


Dentin; endodontics; hardness; irrigation; vinegars

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