Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2019 Feb 28. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0018. [Epub ahead of print]

Long-term treadmill exercise upregulated hippocampal learning-related genes without improving cognitive behavior in social isolated rats.

Author information

1
AMASYA UNIVERSITY, AMASYA, 90 AMASYA, Turkey. sevallkeloglan@hotmail.com.
2
Mersin University.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Some environment enrichments such as exercise has been reported to improve the diminished cognitive functions and related gene expression. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged treadmill exercise on long-term learning and hippocampal gene expression, which involves learning and plasticity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Male Wistar rats (n=32) randomly assigned into four groups: control (C), social isolation (SI), exercised (E), social isolation+exercise (SE) during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. Social isolation protocol was applied during 14 days by placing the rat alone in a cage. Rats were exercised daily, 5 days per week, for overall 4 weeks. Finally, learning performance was evaluated by the novel object recognition test. At the end of learning test, the rats were decapitated to isolate hippocampus tissues for learning related gene expression such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit genes (Grin1, Grin2a, Grin2b) and cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), Cdk5 regulatory subunit p35 (Cdk5r), activity-regulated, cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc), the immediate early gene (c-Fos,a marker of neuronal activation), doublecortin (DCX), Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by RT-PCR.

RESULTS:

Grin1, NMDAR subunit gene expression was increased significantly in E group compared to other groups. Grin2b, NMDAR subunit gene expression was increased in E compared to the SI group. Cdk5 level increased in E compared to the SE group. The ASCL1 gene expression increased in E group compare to the SE group. The DCX gene expression increasing in C compared to SI and SE groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Taken together these findings may point out that long-term social isolation down-regulated learning-related genes. However, treadmill exercise together with social isolation did not restore this down-regulation although treadmill exercise increased learning-related genes without improving cognitive behaviour.

KEYWORDS:

BDNF; Learning; NMDAR; Neurogenesis; Novel Object Test; Plasticity

PMID:
30816552
DOI:
10.5603/FM.a2019.0018
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Via Medica Medical Publishers
Loading ...
Support Center