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J Educ Health Promot. 2019 Jan 29;8:24. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_182_18. eCollection 2019.

Determinants of helmet use among health-care providers in urban India: Leveraging the theory of planned behavior.

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Department of Community Medicine, BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Community Medicine, East Point College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Intern, BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.



Wearing helmet during road traffic accidents among motorcycle riders decreases the likelihood of death by 39%. The theory of planned behavior (TPB), a psychological model helps to explain the failure in helmet usage, by assuming a causal chain. The current study was taken up as no studies have elicited the determinants of helmet usage in terms of TPB among health-care providers, the role models for healthful behavior by virtue of their profession in the current urban Indian context.


The aims of the study were (1) to determine the proportion of proper use of helmets and (2) to identify TPB-related factors and other factors influencing the use of helmets.


A cross-sectional study was conducted among 147 students and staff of a tertiary health-care center, Bengaluru, using a pretested, validated, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling was used. Hierarchical regression model was used to explain variation in the scores of helmet-use behavior on the basis of TPB variables. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


About 65% of respondents practiced "proper use" of helmets. Intention, perceived behavioral control (direct), and attitude (indirect) were significant predictors of helmet use (P < 0.05). Mean scores of knowledge on helmet use and behavior showed positive correlation (P > 0.05).


Application of TPB in urban Indian context was successful in identifying precursors of helmet use. This study throws a light on the strong influencers of helmet use which can assist policy developers in developing effective programs to successfully promote the "proper use" of helmets.


Health-care providers; helmet-use behavior; proper use of helmets; theory of planned behavior

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