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J Educ Health Promot. 2019 Jan 29;8:10. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_10_18. eCollection 2019.

Predicting oral health behaviors among Iranian students by using health belief model.

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Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Population Health, Family and Schools Office, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.



The aim of this study is assessing predictors to oral health behavior in Iranian students based on the health belief model.


This cross-sectional study was conducted on 416 (applying the statistical estimation) of fifth-grade female students of Tehran in 2016. Random cluster sampling method was used to recruit students. The inclusion criteria were being grade five female student (aged 10-12 years), and studying in governmental schools, and having a signed consent from the child's parent or legal guardian. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that predict oral health behaviors.


Overall, 416 female students were entered into the study. Of these, only 55.3% of the students reported that they were brushing at least twice a day, 22.4% were using dental floss at least once a day, and 23.1% reported checking their teeth every 6 months. The results obtained from the logistic regression analysis indicated that perceived self-efficacy, was the significant predicting factor for brushing at least twice a day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.06-1.69, P = 0.012) and use of dental floss at least once a day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.14-2.27, P = 0.007). Furthermore, mother's job predicted use of dental floss at least once a day by (OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.10). Perceived benefits were the significant predicting factor for 6 months check (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.14-2.77).


The current study provides evidence oral health can be promoted by increasing perceived self-efficacy and enhancing perceived benefits in female students.


Health belief model; oral health; students

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