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J Glob Infect Dis. 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):19-24. doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_56_18.

Co-infection of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and HIV Infections among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria.
3
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Introduction:

Genital infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) facilitates the acquisition of HIV, both mutually reinforcing infection. Lifelong latent HSV-2 infection raises concerns among women of reproductive age, considering the risk of neonatal transmission. In Nigeria, screening for HSV-2 and co-infection with HIV in antenatal clinics is not routine. This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HSV-2 and HIV among pregnant women.

Methods:

This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between March and August 2013. A total of 270 consenting pregnant women were enrolled. The study involved collecting socio-demographic data and laboratory determination of HSV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and HIV seroprevalence using type-specific third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DIAPRO Diagnostic Bioprobes, Milan, Italy) and Uni-Gold Recombigen/ALERE determine, respectively. Data analyses were done using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., IL, USA).

Results:

The seroprevalence for HSV-2 type-specific IgG was 33.3% (90/270), and HIV antibodies were identified in 19.63% (53/270) of the women. The HIV co-infection was 38.8% (35/90) among HSV-2-positive women and 10% (18/180) among HSV-2-negative women. Majority of the HSV-2 positive women (62.2%, 56/90) presented in their 2nd trimester while 18.9% (17/90) in their 3rd trimester.

Conclusion:

The seroprevalence of HSV-2 in this pregnant population is lower than what is observed in some other Sub-Saharan African countries; however, HSV-2/HIV co-infection is high. The HSV-2-seronegative women are still susceptible to primary HSV-2 infection in pregnancy with increased risk for HIV co-infection and neonatal transmission.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; herpes simplex virus type 2; neonatal transmission; pregnancy; prevalence

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