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J Glob Infect Dis. 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):13-18. doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_33_18.

Factors Associated with Mortality in Immunocompetent Patients with Hospital-acquired Pneumonia.

Author information

Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Department of Pharmacy, Chiang Kham Hospital, Phayao, Thailand.
Department of Pharmaceutical Care Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Pharmaceutical Research Center of Infectious Disease (PRCID), Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.



The aim of the study is to determine the factors associated with 28-day mortality in immunocompetent patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).


This was a 42-month retrospective cohort study in Chiang Kham Hospital. Patients with HAP diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 who did not have an immunocompromised status were recruited into the study.

Statistical Analysis Used:

Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with mortality in patients with HAP.


A total of 181 HAP patients. The most causative pathogens were nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli. Fifty-two (28.7%) patients had died within 28 days after HAP diagnosis. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that mechanical ventilation (MV) dependency (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-8.37, P = 0.003), antibiotic duration (adjusted OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.88, P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (adjusted OR = 5.93, 95% CI 1.29-27.22, P = 0.022), and hematologic diseases (adjusted OR = 11.45, 95% CI 1.61-81.50, P = 0.015) were the significant factors associated with 28-day mortality.


The factors associated with mortality were MV dependency, HAP duration of treatment, acute kidney injury, and hematologic disease. Early recognition of these factors in immunocompetent patients with HAP and treatment with intensive care may improve the outcome.


Factors; hospital-acquired pneumonia; immunocompetent; mortality; multivariable model

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