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Respir Res. 2019 Feb 27;20(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s12931-019-1003-4.

Pulmonary arterial remodelling by deficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in murine vascular smooth muscle cells occurs independently of obesity-related pulmonary hypertension.

Author information

1
Klinik III für Innere Medizin, University of Cologne Heart Center, Cologne, Germany.
2
Center for Molecular Medine Cologne (CMMC), Cologne Cardiovascular Research Center (CCRC), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
3
Department of Cardiology, University Medicine Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
4
Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Center for Cardiovascular Research (CCR), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
5
Department of Pathology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
6
Department of Cardiology, German Heart Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
7
Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Center for Cardiovascular Research (CCR), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. kai.kappert@charite.de.
8
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, Berlin, Germany. kai.kappert@charite.de.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Obesity is associated with cardiovascular complications, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). Reports suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) has direct action in preventing vascular remodelling in PH. Here we dissected the specific role of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-PPARγ for remodelling of small pulmonary arteries.

METHODS:

Wild-type (WT) and VSMC-specific PPARγ-knockout (SmPparγ-/-) mice were fed a low-fat-diet (LFD, 10% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat) for 24 weeks. Mice were metabolically phenotyped (e.g. weight development, insulin/glucose tolerance) at the beginning, and after 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. At 24 weeks additionally pulmonary pressure, heart structure, pulmonary vascular muscularization together with gene and protein expression in heart and lung tissues were determined.

RESULTS:

HFD increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) to a similar extent in WT and SmPparγ-/- mice. HFD decreased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in both WT and SmPparγ-/- mice. Importantly, the increase in RVSP correlated with the degree of insulin resistance. However, VSMC-PPARγ deficiency increased pulmonary vascular muscularization independently of the diet-induced rise in RVSP. This increase was associated with elevated expression of early growth response protein 1 in heart and osteopontin in lung tissue.

CONCLUSIONS:

Here we demonstrate a correlation of insulin resistance and pulmonary pressure. Further, deficiency of PPARγ in VSMCs diet-independently leads to increased pulmonary vascular muscularization.

KEYWORDS:

Insulin resistance; Obesity; PPARgamma; Pulmonary hypertension; VSMC

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