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Bone Joint J. 2019 Mar;101-B(3):325-330. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.101B3.BJJ-2018-0795.R2.

Deepening trochleoplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction normalize patellotrochlear congruence in severe trochlear dysplasia.

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1
Arcus Sportklinik, Pforzheim, Germany.

Abstract

AIMS:

The aim of this study was to evaluate cartilaginous patellotrochlear congruence and patellofemoral alignment parameters after deepening trochleoplasty in severe trochlear dysplasia.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study group comprised 20 patients (two male, 18 female; mean age 24 years (16 to 39)) who underwent deepening trochleoplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for the treatment of recurrent lateral patellar dislocation due to severe trochlear dysplasia (Dejour type B to D). Pre- and postoperative MRI investigations of the study group were compared with MRI data of 20 age- and gender-matched control patients (two male, 18 female; mean age 27 years (18 to 44)) regarding the patellotrochlear contact ratio, patellotrochlear contact area, posterior patellar edge-trochlear groove ratio, and patellar tilt.

RESULTS:

Preoperatively, all parameters in the study group indicated significant patellar malalignment, including a reduced patellotrochlear contact ratio (mean 0.38 (0.13 to 0.59) vs mean 0.67 (0.48 to 0.88); p < 0.001), reduced contact area (mean 128 mm2 (87 to 190) vs mean 183 mm2 (155 to 227); p < 0.001), increased patellar lateralization (mean 0.82 (0.55 to 1.0) vs mean 0.99 (0.93 to 1.1); p < 0.001) and increased patellar tilt (mean 25.8° (8.1° to 43.0°) vs mean 9.1° (0.5° to 16.8°); p < 0.001). Postoperatively, all parameters in the study group improved significantly and reached normal values compared with the control group. The patellotrochlear contact ratio increased to a mean of 0.63 (0.38 to 0.85) (p < 0.001), the contact area increased to a mean of 187 mm2 (101 to 255) (p < 0.001), the posterior patellar edge-trochlear groove ratio improved to a mean of 0.96 (0.83 to 0.91) (p < 0.001), and the patellar tilt decreased to a mean of 13.9° (8.1° to 22.1°) (p < 0.001) postoperatively.

CONCLUSION:

Deepening trochleoplasty and MPFL reconstruction normalized the patellotrochlear congruence and patellofemoral alignment parameters. Modifying the dysplastic trochlea involves approximating the trochlear morphology to the shape of the patella rather than inducing a patella and trochlea mismatch. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:325-330.

KEYWORDS:

Patellar dislocation; Patellar shape; Patellotrochlear congruence; Trochlear dysplasia; Trochleoplasty

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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