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Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019 May;98:949-959. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.01.050. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Evaluation of mechanical strength and bone regeneration ability of 3D printed kagome-structure scaffold using rabbit calvarial defect model.

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of Engineering, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk, 54538, Republic of Korea.
2
Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of Engineering, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk, 54538, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: youngsamcho@wku.ac.kr.
7
Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: bukyu.lee@gmail.com.

Abstract

In clinical conditions, the reconstructions performed in the complex and three-dimensional bone defects in the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) area are often limited in facial esthetics and jaw function. Furthermore, to regenerate a bone defect in the CMF area, the used scaffold should have unique features such as different mechanical strength or physical property suitable for complex shape and function of the CMF bones. Therefore, a three-dimensional synthetic scaffold with a patient-customized structure and mechanical properties is more suitable for the regeneration. In this study, the customized kagome-structure scaffold with complex morphology was assessed in vivo. The customized 3D kagome-structure model for the defect region was designed according to data using 3D computed tomography. The kagome-structure scaffold and the conventional grid-structure scaffold (as a control group) were fabricated using a 3D printer with a precision extruding deposition head using poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The two types of 3D printed scaffolds were implanted in the 8-shaped defect model on the rabbit calvarium. To evaluate the osteoconductivity of the implanted scaffolds, new bone formation, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, and Masson's trichrome staining were evaluated for 16 weeks after implantation of the scaffolds. To assess the mechanical robustness and stability of the kagome-structure scaffold, numerical analysis considering the 'elastic-perfectly plastic' material properties and deformation under self-contact condition was performed by finite element analysis. As a result, the kagome-structure scaffold fabricated using 3D printing technology showed excellent mechanical robustness and enhanced osteoconductivity than the control group. Therefore, the 3D printed kagome-structure scaffold can be a better option for bone regeneration in complex and large defects than the conventional grid-type 3D printed scaffold.

KEYWORDS:

3D printing; Bone defect model; Customized bone graft; Kagome-structure scaffold; Poly-caprolactone

PMID:
30813102
DOI:
10.1016/j.msec.2019.01.050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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