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One Health. 2019 Feb 11;7:100083. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2019.100083. eCollection 2019 Jun.

A framework for adaptive surveillance of emerging tick-borne zoonoses.

Author information

1
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.
2
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montréal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec J2S 2M2, Canada.
3
Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.
4
Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.

Abstract

Significant global ecological changes continue to drive emergence of tick-borne zoonoses around the world. This poses an important threat to both human and animal health, and highlights the need for surveillance systems that are capable of monitoring these complex diseases effectively across different stages of the emergence process. Our objective was to develop an evidence-based framework for surveillance of emerging tick-borne zoonoses. We conducted a realist review to understand the available approaches and major challenges associated with surveillance of emerging tick-borne zoonoses. Lyme disease, with a specific focus on emergence in Canada, was used as a case study to provide real-world context, since the process of disease emergence is ongoing in this country. We synthesize the results to propose a novel framework for adaptive surveillance of emerging tick-borne zoonoses. Goals for each phase of disease emergence are highlighted and approaches are suggested. The framework emphasizes the needs for surveillance systems to be inclusive, standardized, comprehensive and sustainable. We build upon a growing body of infectious disease literature that is advocating for reform to surveillance systems. Although our framework has been developed for tick-borne zoonoses, it is flexible and has the potential to be applied to a variety of other vector-borne and zoonotic diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Disease emergence; Framework; Lyme disease; Surveillance; Tick-borne; Zoonoses

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