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Blood Cancer J. 2019 Feb 26;9(3):25. doi: 10.1038/s41408-019-0186-8.

Elevated IgM and abnormal free light chain ratio are increased in relatives from high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia pedigrees.

Author information

1
University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
2
Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
3
Carver College of Medicine, University ofIowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.
4
University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA. nicola.camp@hci.utah.edu.
5
Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA. nicola.camp@hci.utah.edu.

Abstract

Abnormal serum immunoglobulin (Ig) free light chains (FLC) are established biomarkers of early disease in multiple B-cell lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Heavy chains have also been shown to be biomarkers in plasma cell disorders. An unanswered question is whether these Ig biomarkers are heritable, i.e., influenced by germline factors. CLL is heritable but highly heterogeneous. Heritable biomarkers could elucidate steps of disease pathogenesis that are affected by germline factors, and may help partition heterogeneity and identify genetic pleiotropies across malignancies. Relatives in CLL pedigrees present an opportunity to identify heritable biomarkers. We compared FLCs and heavy chains between relatives in 23 high-risk CLL pedigrees and population controls. Elevated IgM (eIgM) and abnormal FLC (aFLC) ratio was significantly increased in relatives, suggesting that these Ig biomarkers are heritable and could offer risk stratification in pedigree relatives. Within high-risk CLL pedigrees, B-cell lymphoid malignancies were five times more prevalent in close relatives of individuals with eIgM, prostate cancer was three times more prevalent in relatives of individuals with aFLC, and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis increased surrounding individuals with normal Ig levels. These different clustering patterns suggest Ig biomarkers have the potential to partition genetic heterogeneity in CLL and provide insight into distinct heritable pleiotropies associated with CLL.

PMID:
30808891
PMCID:
PMC6391432
DOI:
10.1038/s41408-019-0186-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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