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BMC Genomics. 2019 Feb 26;20(1):154. doi: 10.1186/s12864-019-5526-3.

Transcriptome analysis of air-breathing land slug, Incilaria fruhstorferi reveals functional insights into growth, immunity, and reproduction.

Author information

1
School of Biotech Sciences, Trident Academy of Creative Technology (TACT), F2-B, Chandaka Industrial Estate, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751024, India.
2
Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, 22 Soonchunhyangro, Shinchang-myeon, Asan, Chungchungnam-do, 31538, South Korea.
3
Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 181, Ipsin-gil, Jungeup-si, Jeollabuk-do, 56212, South Korea.
4
Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources, Biodiversity Conservation and Change Research Division, 137, Donam-2-gil, Sangju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 37242, South Korea.
5
College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 61186, South Korea.
6
Research Institute, GnC BIO Co., LTD, 621-6 Banseok-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34069, Republic of Korea.
7
Institute of Basic Science, Soonchunhyang University, 22 Soonchunhyangro, Shinchang-myeon, Asan, Chungchungnam-do, 31538, South Korea.
8
Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, 22 Soonchunhyangro, Shinchang-myeon, Asan, Chungchungnam-do, 31538, South Korea. yslee@sch.ac.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Incilaria (= Meghimatium) fruhstorferi is an air-breathing land slug found in restricted habitats of Japan, Taiwan and selected provinces of South Korea (Jeju, Chuncheon, Busan, and Deokjeokdo). The species is on a decline due to depletion of forest cover, predation by natural enemies, and collection. To facilitate the conservation of the species, it is important to decide on a number of traits related to growth, immunity and reproduction addressing fitness advantage of the species.

RESULTS:

The visceral mass transcriptome of I. fruhstorferi was enabled using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform. According to BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) method, the transcriptome was considered complete with 91.8% of ortholog genes present (Single: 70.7%; Duplicated: 21.1%). A total of 96.79% of the raw read sequences were processed as clean reads. TransDecoder identified 197,271 contigs that contained candidate-coding regions. Of a total of 50,230 unigenes, 34,470 (68.62% of the total unigenes) annotated to homologous proteins in the Protostome database (PANM-DB). The GO term and KEGG pathway analysis indicated genes involved in metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signalling system, aminobenzoate degradation, and T-cell receptor signalling pathway. Many genes associated with molluscan innate immunity were categorized under pathogen recognition receptor, TLR signalling pathway, MyD88 dependent pathway, endogenous ligands, immune effectors, antimicrobial peptides, apoptosis, and adaptation-related. The reproduction-associated unigenes showed homology to protein fem-1, spermatogenesis-associated protein, sperm associated antigen, and testis expressed sequences, among others. In addition, we identified key growth-related genes categorized under somatotrophic axis, muscle growth, chitinases and collagens. A total of 4822 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were also identified from the unigene sequences of I. fruhstorferi.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first available genomic information for non-model land slug, I. fruhstorferi focusing on genes related to growth, immunity, and reproduction, with additional focus on microsatellites and repeating elements. The transcriptome provides access to greater number of traits of unknown relevance in the species that could be exploited for in-depth analyses of evolutionary plasticity and making informed choices during conservation planning. This would be appropriate for understanding the dynamics of the species on a priority basis considering the ecological, health, and social benefits.

KEYWORDS:

Immunity; Incilaria fruhstorferi; Peptidoglycan recognition protein; Sex-linked genes; Simple sequence repeats; Tollip; Transciptome; de novo analysis

PMID:
30808280
PMCID:
PMC6390351
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-019-5526-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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