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Int J Cancer. 2019 Feb 26. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32233. [Epub ahead of print]

Intake of individual fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

Author information

1
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
2
Dietary Exposure Assessment Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
3
Institute of Applied Health Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
4
Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
5
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
7
Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
8
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "ATTIKON" University Hospital, Haidari, Greece.
9
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
10
Cancer Risk Factors and Life-Style Epidemiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research, Prevention and Clinical Network - ISPRO, Florence, Italy.
11
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza University-Hospital and Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO), Turin, Italy.
12
Department of Cancer Registry and Histopathology, "Civic - M.P. Arezzo" Hospital ASP, Ragusa, Italy.
13
Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
14
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
15
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
16
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
17
Department of Basque Regional Health, Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa-BIODONOSTIA, Guipúzcoa, Spain.
18
CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain.
19
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
20
Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.
21
Navarra Public Health Institute, Pamplona, Spain.
22
IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain.
23
Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain.
24
Department of Health and Social Sciences, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
25
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology-IDIBELL. L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
26
Department of Translational Medicine, Medical Faculty, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
27
Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
28
Nutrition Epidemiology Research Group, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
29
Clinical Research Centre, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
30
Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
31
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina, School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece.
32
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
33
Department of Nutrition, Bjørknes University College, Oslo, Norway.
34
Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

The associations of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk have not been examined comprehensively. We examined the prospective association of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk overall, by tumor subtypes, and prostate cancer death. 142,239 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who were free from cancer at recruitment were included. Dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were estimated using center-specific validated dietary questionnaires at baseline and calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases and 936 prostate cancer deaths were ascertained. Intakes of individual fatty acids were not related to overall prostate cancer risk. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the association of some short chain saturated fatty acids with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage (pheterogeneity < 0.015), with a positive association with risk of advanced stage disease for butyric acid (4:0; HR1SD = 1.08; 95%CI = 1.01-1.15; p-trend = 0.026). There were no associations with fatal prostate cancer, with the exception of a slightly higher risk for those who consumed more eicosenoic acid (22:1n-9c; HR1SD = 1.05; 1.00-1.11; p-trend = 0.048) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3c; HR1SD = 1.07; 1.00-1.14; p-trend = 0.045). There was no evidence that dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were associated with overall prostate cancer risk. However, a higher intake of butyric acid might be associated with a higher risk of advanced, whereas intakes of eicosenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids might be positively associated with fatal prostate cancer risk.

KEYWORDS:

individual fatty acids; prospective; prostate cancer; tumor subtypes

PMID:
30807653
DOI:
10.1002/ijc.32233
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