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Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s12016-019-08730-3. [Epub ahead of print]

The Effects of Air Pollution on the Development of Atopic Disease.

Author information

1
Division of Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45267-0563, USA.
2
Division of Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45267-0563, USA. BERNSTDD@ucmail.uc.edu.

Abstract

Air pollution is defined as the presence of noxious substances in the air at levels that impose a health hazard. Thus, there has been long-standing interest in the possible role of indoor and outdoor air pollutants on the development of respiratory disease. In this regard, asthma has been of particular interest but many studies have also been conducted to explore the relationship between air pollution, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Traffic-related air pollutants or TRAP refers to a broad group of pollutants including elemental carbon, black soot, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). In this review, we aim to examine the current literature regarding the impact of early childhood exposure to TRAP on the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Although there is growing evidence suggesting significant associations, definitive conclusions cannot be made with regard to the effect of TRAP on these diseases. This conundrum may be due to a variety of factors, including different definitions used to define TRAP, case definitions under consideration, a limited number of studies, variation in study designs, and disparities between studies in consideration of confounding factors. Regardless, this review highlights the need for future studies to be conducted, particularly with birth cohorts that explore this relationship further. Such studies may assist in understanding more clearly the pathogenesis of these diseases, as well as other methods by which these diseases could be treated.

KEYWORDS:

Air pollution; Allergic rhinitis; Asthma; Atopic dermatitis; Childhood; Incident asthma; TRAP

PMID:
30806950
DOI:
10.1007/s12016-019-08730-3

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