Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2019 Feb 26;21(4):11. doi: 10.1007/s11926-019-0810-4.

New Attempts to Define and Clarify Lupus.

Author information

Medical Genomics, GENYO. Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research: Pfizer/University of Granada/Andalusian Regional Government, Av de la Ilustración 114, PTS, 18016, Granada, Spain.
Unit of Inflammatory Chronic Diseases, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17777, Solna, Sweden.



The purpose is to discuss the advances that genetics and genomics have provided to better understand the molecular mechanisms behind SLE and how to solve its heterogeneity. I propose new ideas that can help us stratify lupus in order to find the best therapies for each patient, and the idea of substituting clinical diagnosis with molecular diagnosis according to their molecular patterns, an idea that may not only include lupus but also other diseases.


The study of rare mutations may provide insight into groups of lupus patients where type I interferon signature is important and help understand those with an atypical clinical presentation. Recent papers used longitudinal blood transcriptome data correlating with disease activity scores to stratify lupus into molecular clusters. The implication of neutrophils in the risk to develop nephritis was established, but also that neutrophils and lymphocytes may correlate with activity differentiating the mechanisms of flares and separating patients into clinically separate groups. The role of type I interferon signature is important; however, the stratification of SLE patients according to the genes and cellular compartments being modulated during disease activity may be even more important to define those patients who may benefit the most with new anti-type I IFN receptor therapies.


Classification criteria; Epigenetics; Methylation; Stratification; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Transcriptome

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center