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Pain Manag. 2019 Mar 1;9(2):131-138. doi: 10.2217/pmt-2018-0070. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Considerations in addressing the opioid epidemic and chronic pain within the USA.

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Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, Texas, United States.


This article reviews the complexities of the opioid epidemic, considering recent research involving the current state of the opioid epidemic; chronic pain and its role in the crisis; the properties of opioids and how they interact with human neurobiology; the effectiveness and risks of opioids as a treatment for chronic pain; opioid addiction and dependence; and pharmacological and psychological interventions for opioid addiction, opioid dependence, and chronic pain management. Opioid abuse can be reduced with the availability and access to treatment facilities for opioid detoxification; using interdisciplinary treatment models for chronic pain, opioid addiction and dependence; conducting more research in the areas of opioid addiction and opioid dependence; and shifting to an increase in nonpharmacological, less invasive treatments for pain.


chronic pain; opioid addiction; opioid dependence; opioids;  biopsychosocial

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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