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Childs Nerv Syst. 2019 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s00381-019-04096-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparative study of intracisternal kaolin injection techniques to induce congenital hydrocephalus in fetal lamb.

Author information

1
Center for Fetal and Placental Research, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC), 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 11025, Cincinnati, OH, 45229-3039, USA.
2
Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Jesus Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (JUMISC), Caceres, Spain.
4
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
5
Center for Fetal and Placental Research, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC), 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 11025, Cincinnati, OH, 45229-3039, USA. Jose.peiro@cchmc.org.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Kaolin (aluminum silicate) has been used to generate hydrocephalus by direct cisterna magna injection in animal models. The aim of the present study is to compare which method of Kaolin injection into fetal cisterna magna is feasible, safer, and more effective to induce hydrocephalus in fetal lambs.

METHODS:

Twenty-five well-dated pregnant ewes at gestational 85-90 days (E85-90) were used to compare three different kaolin injection puncture techniques into the fetal cisterna magna. Group 1, ultrasound guidance in a maternal percutaneous transabdominal (TA); group 2, without opening the uterus in a transuterine (TU) technique; group 3, by occipital direct access after exteriorizing fetal head (EFH); and group 4, control group, was normal fetal lambs without injection. The fetal lambs were assessed using lateral ventricle diameter ultrasonographic measurements prior the kaolin injection and on the subsequent days. We analyzed the effectivity, mortality, and fetal losses to determine the best technique to create hydrocephalus in fetal lamb.

RESULTS:

After fetal intracisternal kaolin (2%, 1mL) injection, lateral ventricle diameters increased progressively in the three different interventional groups compared with the normal values of the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We observed that the transabdominal method had a 60% of fetal losses, considering failure of injection and mortality, compared with the 12.5% in the open group (EFH), and 0% for the transuterine group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Based on our study, we believe that both, open uterine (EFH) and transuterine approaches are more effective and safer than the transabdominal ultrasound-guided method to induce hydrocephalus.

KEYWORDS:

Fetal; Hydrocephalus; Kaolin; Sheep; Ventriculomegaly

PMID:
30805823
DOI:
10.1007/s00381-019-04096-1

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