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Gut Pathog. 2019 Feb 13;11:3. doi: 10.1186/s13099-019-0288-7. eCollection 2019.

High contiguity genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant hospital isolate of Enterobacter hormaechei.

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1ithree institute, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway Street, Ultimo, 2007 Australia.
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute, Woodbridge Road, Menangle, 2568 Australia.



Enterobacter hormaechei is an important emerging pathogen and a key member of the highly diverse Enterobacter cloacae complex. E. hormaechei strains can persist and spread in nosocomial environments, and often exhibit resistance to multiple clinically important antibiotics. However, the genomic regions that harbour resistance determinants are typically highly repetitive and impossible to resolve with standard short-read sequencing technologies.


Here we used both short- and long-read methods to sequence the genome of a multidrug-resistant hospital isolate (C15117), which we identified as E. hormaechei. Hybrid assembly generated a complete circular chromosome of 4,739,272 bp and a fully resolved plasmid of 339,920 bp containing several antibiotic resistance genes. The strain also harboured a 34,857 bp repeat encoding copper resistance, which was present in both the chromosome and plasmid. Long reads that unambiguously spanned this repeat were required to resolve the chromosome and plasmid into separate replicons.


This study provides important insights into the evolution and potential spread of antimicrobial resistance in a nosocomial E. hormaechei strain. More broadly, it further exemplifies the power of long-read sequencing technologies, particularly the Oxford Nanopore platform, for the characterisation of bacteria with complex resistance loci and large repeat elements.


Enterobacter cloacae complex; Enterobacter hormaechei; Hybrid assembly; Long-read sequencing

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