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Front Immunol. 2019 Feb 5;10:47. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00047. eCollection 2019.

NETopathic Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Severe Asthma.

Author information

1
Respiratory Global Medicines Development, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2
Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
3
Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic, Großhansdorf, Germany.
4
Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Großhansdorf, Germany.
5
LungenClinic, Großhansdorf, Germany.

Abstract

Neutrophils play a central role in innate immunity, inflammation, and resolution. Unresolving neutrophilia features as a disrupted inflammatory process in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe asthma. The extent to which this may be linked to disease pathobiology remains obscure and could be further confounded by indication of glucocorticoids or concomitant respiratory infections. The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represents a specialized host defense mechanism that entrap and eliminate invading microbes. NETs are web-like scaffolds of extracellular DNA in complex with histones and neutrophil granular proteins, such as myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. Distinct from apoptosis, NET formation is an active form of cell death that could be triggered by various microbial, inflammatory, and endogenous or exogenous stimuli. NETs are reportedly enriched in neutrophil-dominant refractory lung diseases, such as COPD and severe asthma. Evidence for a pathogenic role for respiratory viruses (e.g., Rhinovirus), bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus) in NET induction is emerging. Dysregulation of this process may exert localized NET burden and contribute to NETopathic lung inflammation. Disentangling the role of NETs in human health and disease offer unique opportunities for therapeutic modulation. The chemokine CXCR2 receptor regulates neutrophil activation and migration, and small molecule CXCR2 antagonists (e.g., AZD5069, danirixin) have been developed to selectively block neutrophilic inflammatory pathways. NET-stabilizing agents using CXCR2 antagonists are being investigated in proof-of-concept studies in patients with COPD to provide mechanistic insights. Clinical validation of this type could lead to novel therapeutics for multiple CXCR2-related NETopathologies. In this Review, we discuss the emerging role of NETs in the clinicopathobiology of COPD and severe asthma and provide an outlook on how novel NET-stabilizing therapies via CXCR2 blockade could be leveraged to disrupt NETopathic inflammation in disease-specific phenotypes.

KEYWORDS:

COPD; CXCR2; NETopathic inflammation; airway; asthma; neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)

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