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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 Jan-Feb;30(1):175-184.

Clinical study on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease among North Tunisians.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine A; Laboratory of Renal Pathology - LR00S001, Charles Nicolle Hospital; Medical School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
2
Department of Medicine A, Charles Nicolle Hospital; Medical School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
3
Laboratory of Renal Pathology - LR00S001, Charles Nicolle Hospital; Medical School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
4
Laboratory of Renal Pathology - LR00S001, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia.
5
Department of Medicine A, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia.

Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease, which usually manifests in adulthood. It is characterized by the development of multiple cysts in the kidneys and many other extrarenal manifestations. We aimed to determine the factors that contribute to the progression of ADPKD to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In a retrospective multicentric study, we reviewed the records of 569 patients with ADPKD, hospitalized at a nephrology department or followed up at the outpatient department of university and regional hospitals, covering the north and center of the country, during the period 1969-2016. The mean age of the study patients was 48.54 ± 13.68 years and 14% were young adults (<40 years). There were 272 female and 297 male patients (sex ratio: male/female = 1.09). A family history of ADPKD was found in 43.7% of cases. Renal symptoms were dominated by loin pain, renal failure, hypertension, and hematuria, seen in, respectively, 51.9%, 48.2%, 29.1%, and 24.6% of the patients. The median serum creatinine level was 459 μmol/L (range: 47-2454), and hypertension had preceded the onset of ADPKD in 28.8% of cases. Extrarenal manifestations consisted of urologic complications (54.6%), liver cysts (43.5%), cardiac involvement (31.9%), cerebral aneurysms (12.9%), and gastrointestinal involvement (9.4%). ESRD occurred in 43.1% after a mean follow-up of 47 months (range: 0-384). Risk factors for poor renal prognosis were age >40 years (P = 0.009), hematuria (P = 0.034), hemoglobin >14 g/dL (P = 0.0013), high uric acid level (P = 0.001), and leukocyturia (P = 0.02). Death occurred in 59 cases (10.3%), mostly caused by infections (44.1%). In our study, ADPKD was lately diagnosed in most cases. Family screening is important, which will enable early detection and management of the complications associated with ADPKD.

PMID:
30804279

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