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Nutr Res. 2019 Apr;64:56-63. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2018.12.012. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

Apple intake improves antioxidant parameters in hemodialysis patients without affecting serum potassium levels.

Author information

1
Post-graduate Program in Nutrition, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: deiagiaretta@yahoo.com.
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: schulzmay@gmail.com.
3
Post-graduate Program in Nutrition, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: tais.thomsen@gmail.com.
4
Department of Clinical Analyses, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: oliveiraa.marina@gmail.com.
5
Apar Vida Clínica de Rins, São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: mayarajpatricio@gmail.com.
6
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: lvgonzaga@hotmail.com.
7
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: roseane.fett@gmail.com.
8
Post-graduate Program in Nutrition, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil; Department of Clinical Analyses, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: dasilvael@hotmail.com.
9
Post-graduate Program in Nutrition, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address: e.wazlawik@ufsc.br.

Abstract

Oxidative stress (OS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and the consumption of fruits seems to improve OS due to their antioxidant properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that Fuji apple intake improves OS markers in HD patients due to its polyphenolic compounds without increasing serum potassium levels. This trial was a 1-group, pre- and posttest comparison between 16 patients who had been on hemodialysis for at least 3 months without any acute illness or hyperkalemia. Each volunteer consumed 2 Fuji apples (~360 g) per day for 1 week. Blood samples were collected at the baseline period and after 8 days for the measurement of total antioxidant status, ascorbic acid, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, potassium, phosphorus, uric acid, glucose, and fructosamine. For tolerance evaluation, participants were asked about their bowel habits. Apple intake increased glutathione peroxidase (P = .006) and superoxide dismutase activities (P = .006) and ascorbic acid levels (P = .002). No significant changes were observed in uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, glucose, and fructosamine levels. Additionally, there was a decrease in the catalase activity (P = .021) and in the total antioxidant status values (P = .004). However, increased total oxidant status (P = .003) and oxidative stress index (P = .033) levels were observed after apple intake. In conclusion, the intake of 2 Fuji apples per day for 1 week was well tolerated and improved antioxidant parameters in HD patients without affecting serum potassium levels.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant status; Apple intake; Hemodialysis patients; Oxidative stress; Potassium

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