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Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2019 Mar - Apr;62(2):94-101. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2019.02.003. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Are the neuroprotective effects of exercise training systemically mediated?

Author information

1
The Cardiac Exercise Research Group at Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Department of Neurology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: atefe.r.tari@ntnu.no.
2
The Cardiac Exercise Research Group at Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Department of Neurology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
3
The Cardiac Exercise Research Group at Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
4
Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Centre for Neural Computation, Egil and Pauline Braathen and Fred Kavli Centre for Cortical Microcircuits, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
5
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
6
Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, Norway.
7
Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America.
8
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway; Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Research Centre for Age-related Functional Decline and Disease, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Ottestad, Norway.
9
Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Age and Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK.

Abstract

To date there is no cure available for dementia, and the field calls for novel therapeutic targets. A rapidly growing body of literature suggests that regular endurance training and high cardiorespiratory fitness attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce dementia risk. Such benefits have recently been linked to systemic neurotrophic factors induced by exercise. These circulating biomolecules may cross the blood-brain barrier and potentially protect against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Identifying exercise-induced systemic neurotrophic factors with beneficial effects on the brain may lead to novel molecular targets for maintaining cognitive function and preventing neurodegeneration. Here we review the recent literature on potential systemic mediators of neuroprotection induced by exercise. We focus on the body of translational research in the field, integrating knowledge from the molecular level, animal models, clinical and epidemiological studies. Taken together, the current literature provides initial evidence that exercise-induced, blood-borne biomolecules, such as BDNF and FNDC5/irisin, may be powerful agents mediating the benefits of exercise on cognitive function and may form the basis for new therapeutic strategies to better prevent and treat dementia.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; Cardiorespiratory fitness; Dementia; Exercise-induced blood-borne factors; Physical activity

PMID:
30802460
DOI:
10.1016/j.pcad.2019.02.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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