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Acta Trop. 2019 Feb 22. pii: S0001-706X(19)30042-7. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.02.020. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk factors of severe imported malaria in Anhui province, China.

Author information

1
Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, 230601, China. Electronic address: lumanman123@126.com.
2
Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, 230601, China. Electronic address: xx@ahcdc.com.cn.
3
Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, 230601, China. Electronic address: jjj@ahcdc.com.cn.
4
Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, 230601, China. Electronic address: yc-perfect@163.com.
5
Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, 230601, China. Electronic address: 1113485604@qq.com.
6
Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China. Electronic address: 13856961525@163.com.
7
Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, 230601, China. Electronic address: ahcdclwd@163.com.

Abstract

We aimed to determine risk factors for developing severe illness in patients infected with imported Plasmodium falciparum, and identify factors that can be implemented in preventive public health actions. Data of patients in Anhui province were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and Information System for Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention from 2012-2018. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical severity, and preventive measures were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Risk factors for severe malaria were identified by logistic regression. During the study period, 8.01% (53/662) of patients infected with P. falciparum developed severe malaria; the annual severe incidence rate varied from 5.93% to 10.77% and the fatality rate was 0.6%. Two models were built to analyze the delay from symptom onset to treatment; one analyzed data by stage, whereas the other analyzed data combined from all stages. In model 1, multivariate analysis identified misdiagnosis at first medical visit and patient delay as risk factors for severe malaria (odds ratio: 3.108 and 3.385, respectively, all p < 0.01). In model 2, overall delay was a significant factor of severe malaria onset (odds ratio: 4.719, p = 0.000). In both models, patients with a history of previous infection had a significantly reduced risk of developing severe malaria; high parasitemia (≥ 2.5%) was associated with an increased risk of severe infection. Delay between symptom onset and treatment was an important cause for development of severe disease in Anhui province. Measures to reduce delays should be used and implemented in preventive public health actions.

KEYWORDS:

Anhui province; Plasmodium falciparum; imported; severe malaria

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