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Arch Dermatol Res. 2019 Apr;311(3):141-162. doi: 10.1007/s00403-019-01890-4. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Atopic dermatitis and autoimmunity: the occurrence of autoantibodies and their association with disease severity.

Author information

1
School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Life Sciences Building, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.
2
School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Life Sciences Building, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. ian.todd@nottingham.ac.uk.

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widespread condition that appears to be increasing in prevalence and severity worldwide, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent research has identified various similarities between AD and autoimmune conditions, as well as indicating that there may be an association between AD and autoimmunity. This systematic review evaluates the association between AD and autoimmunity, as well as between severity of disease in AD and autoimmunity, with an emphasis on the associations with autoantibodies. MEDLINE (1946 to December 2017) and Embase (1974 to December 2017) databases were searched. Further relevant articles were retrieved from reference lists. Only studies measuring direct indicators of autoimmunity, in humans, were included. Qualitative analysis was carried out for all studies. In addition, quantitative analysis was used to evaluate prevalence of IgE autoantibodies and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) in AD patients and control subjects. The Mantel-Haenszel method was used with a random-effects model. 28 studies assessed the occurrence of autoantibodies in AD patients and 16 studies were used to evaluate association between disease severity and autoantibodies. Pooled analysis from 14 studies, involving 986 AD patients and 441 control subjects, showed that IgE autoantibodies were significantly more prevalent in patients with AD (P < 0.00001) than control subjects. Similar analysis was carried out for ANAs, with eight studies that involved 1045 AD patients and 1273 control subjects. ANAs were significantly more prevalent in patients with AD (P = 0.003). This quantitative analysis supported an association between AD and IgE autoantibodies, as well as between AD and ANAs. There was insufficient data to make similar conclusions for other indicators of autoimmunity. The weight of evidence also suggests an association between IgE autoantibodies and disease severity. There was insufficient evidence to make this link for other indicators of autoimmunity.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-nuclear autoantibodies; Atopic dermatitis; Autoantibody; Autoimmunity; IgA; IgE; IgG

PMID:
30798353
DOI:
10.1007/s00403-019-01890-4

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