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Aorta (Stamford). 2018 Jun;6(3):81-87. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1683771. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Blood Flow after Endovascular Repair in the Aortic Arch: A Computational Analysis.

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Thoracic Aortic Research Center, IRCCS-Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
Department of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
Department of Radiology, IRCCS-Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Italy.
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.



 The benefits of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) have encouraged stent graft deployment more proximally in the aortic arch. This study quantifies the hemodynamic impact of TEVAR in proximal landing zone 2 on the thoracic aorta and the proximal supra-aortic branches.


 Patients treated with TEVAR in proximal landing zone 2 having available preoperative and 30-day postoperative computer tomography angiography and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging data were retrospectively selected. Blood flow was studied using patient-specific computational fluid dynamics simulations.


 Four patients were included. Following TEVAR in proximal landing zone 2, the mean flow in the left common carotid artery (LCCA) increased almost threefold, from 0.21 (0.12-0.41) L/min to 0.61 (0.24-1.08) L/min (+294%). The surface area of the LCCA had not yet increased commensurately and therefore maximum flow velocity in the LCCA increased from 44.9 (27.0-89.3) cm/s to 72.6 (40.8-135.0) cm/s (+62%). One of the patients presented with Type Ib endoleak at 1-year follow-up. The displacement force in this patient measured 32.1 N and was directed dorsocranial, perpendicular to the distal sealing zone. There was a linear correlation between the surface area of the stent graft and the resulting displacement force (p = 0.04).


 TEVAR in proximal landing zone 2 alters blood flow in the supra-aortic branches, resulting in increased flow with high flow velocities in the LCCA. High displacement forces were calculated and related to stent graft migration and Type I endoleak during 1-year follow-up.

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