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Diabetes Metab J. 2019 Feb;43(1):59-75. doi: 10.4093/dmj.2018.0045.

Association of Bisphenol A and Its Substitutes, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol S, with Obesity in United States Children and Adolescents.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
4
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Obesity Research and Education Initiative, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
6
Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
7
Environmental Health Sciences Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
8
Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. wei-bao@uiowa.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) are increasingly used as substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental obesogen. However, health effects of BPF and BPS remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the associations of BPA, BPF, and BPS with obesity in children and adolescents.

METHODS:

We used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2014, a nationally representative study. We included 745 participants aged 6 to 17 years old. General obesity was defined based on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index-for-age growth charts for the United States. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, and urinary creatinine levels, the odds ratio of general obesity comparing the highest with lowest quartile of urinary bisphenol levels was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 3.31) for BPA, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.32) for BPF, and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.53 to 3.51) for BPS. Moreover, the associations were stronger in boys than in girls for BPA and BPF. Similar results were observed for abdominal obesity.

CONCLUSION:

This study for the first time showed that exposure to BPF, a commonly used substitute for BPA, was positively associated with higher risk of obesity in children and adolescents. The association of BPA and BPF with general and abdominal obesity was primarily observed in boys, suggesting a possible sex difference. Further investigations on the underlying mechanisms are needed.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescent; Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfone; Bisphenol A; Bisphenol F; Child; Obesity

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