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Gynecol Oncol. 2019 May;153(2):368-375. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.02.002. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Performance and outcome of pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies: A population-based study.

Author information

1
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: koji.matsuo@med.usc.edu.
2
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
3
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
4
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine changes in performance and outcomes of pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies.

METHODS:

This is a population-based retrospective study examining the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2001 and 2015. Women with cervical, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar malignancies who underwent pelvic exenteration were examined. Comorbidity, perioperative complications, total charges, length of stay, and mortality were assessed.

RESULTS:

There were 2647 cases included. Cervical cancer was the most common malignancy (45.1%), followed by vaginal cancer (27.6%). 26.9% of women had a Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥3, which significantly increased from 23.3% in 2001-2005 to 33.3% in 2011-2015 (42.9% relative increase, P < 0.001). Obese women undergoing exenteration increased significantly from 4.5% in 2001-2005 to 19.4% in 2011-2015 (3.3-fold relative increase, P < 0.001). The perioperative complication rate was 68.1%, including 38.7% with multiple complications. The mortality rate was 1.9%. The number of women with multiple perioperative complications increased from 29.4% in 2001-2005 to 52.8% in 2011-2015 (78.6% relative increase, P < 0.001). More recent year of surgery, obesity, higher comorbidity, higher household income, surgery at large bedsize hospital, urinary diversion, vaginal reconstruction, and vulvar cancer were associated with an increased risk of multiple complications on multivariable analysis (all, P < 0.05). Median length of stay was 14 (IQR 9-21) days, and the number of women hospitalized ≥28 days significantly increased from 12.6% in 2001-2005 to 19.1% in 2011-2015 (51.6% relative increase, P < 0.001). The median corrected total charges increased from $121,854 to $185,100 between 2001 and 2015 (net difference +$63,246, 51.9% relative increase, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Women undergoing pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies became more obese and comorbid during the study period. Pelvic exenteration for women with gynecologic malignancies is associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as substantial treatment-related costs.

KEYWORDS:

Gynecologic cancer; Morbidity; Mortality; Outcome; Pelvic exenteration; Trend

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