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Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2019 Feb 21. doi: 10.1002/cpdd.665. [Epub ahead of print]

A Phase 1, Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic Trial to Investigate Possible Drug-Drug Interactions Between Clobazam, Stiripentol, or Valproate and Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects.

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GW Research Ltd, Cambridge, UK.
consult2deliver, Nottingham, UK.
Greenwich Biosciences, Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA.


GW Pharmaceuticals' formulation of highly purified cannabidiol oral solution is approved in the United States for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes in patients aged ≥2 years, for which clobazam, stiripentol, and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. This open-label, fixed-sequence, drug-drug interaction, healthy volunteer trial investigated the impact of cannabidiol on steady-state pharmacokinetics of clobazam (and N-desmethylclobazam), stiripentol, and valproate; the reciprocal effect of clobazam, stiripentol, and valproate on cannabidiol and its major metabolites (7-hydroxy-cannabidiol [7-OH-CBD] and 7-carboxy-cannabidiol [7-COOH-CBD]); and cannabidiol safety and tolerability when coadministered with each antiepileptic drug. Concomitant cannabidiol had little effect on clobazam exposure (maximum concentration [Cmax ] and area under the concentration-time curve [AUC], 1.2-fold), N-desmethylclobazam exposure increased (Cmax and AUC, 3.4-fold), stiripentol exposure increased slightly (Cmax , 1.3-fold; AUC, 1.6-fold), while no clinically relevant effect on valproate exposure was observed. Concomitant clobazam with cannabidiol increased 7-OH-CBD exposure (Cmax , 1.7-fold; AUC, 1.5-fold), without notable 7-COOH-CBD or cannabidiol increases. Stiripentol decreased 7-OH-CBD exposure by 29% and 7-COOH-CBD exposure by 13%. There was no effect of valproate on cannabidiol or its metabolites. Cannabidiol was moderately well tolerated, with similar incidences of adverse events reported when coadministered with clobazam, stiripentol, or valproate. There were no deaths, serious adverse events, pregnancies, or other clinically significant safety findings.


cannabidiol; clobazam; drug-drug interaction; pharmacokinetics; stiripentol; valproate


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