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Oman J Ophthalmol. 2019 Jan-Apr;12(1):10-14. doi: 10.4103/ojo.OJO_221_2017.

Ocular outcomes and comorbidities in preterm infants enrolled for retinopathy of prematurity screening: A cohort study from western India.

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1
Department of Retina, PBMA's H. V. Desai Eye Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is emerging as an important cause of childhood blindness in middle-income countries such as India. Although blindness can be prevented in most cases with timely screening and treatment, certain ocular comorbidities can lead to visual impairment. We evaluated and compared 1-year visual, refractive, and structural outcomes and comorbidities in three subsets of preterm infants enrolled for screening of ROP.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

Preterm children enrolled in the hospital's ROP screening program and with diagnosis of no ROP, mild ROP, or severe ROP were followed at 1 year of age to evaluate and compare visual, refractive, and structural outcomes as well as the presence of ocular comorbidities. Risk of poor outcome was calculated in children with mild and severe ROP reference population being children without ROP.

RESULTS:

Eyes with severe ROP were at highest risk of poor visual (risk ratio [RR]: 3.5, P < 0.001), refractive (RR: 45, P < 0.001), and structural (RR: 11, P = 0.006) outcome as well as ocular comorbidities (RR 11, P < 0.001). Eyes with mild ROP were at higher risk of myopia (RR: 11, P = 0.06) and ocular comorbidities (RR: 4, P = 0.04). Sixteen (16%) of the eyes without ROP developed poor visual outcome.

CONCLUSION:

Eyes with severe ROP are at highest risk of poor ocular outcomes and comorbidities and need a long-term follow-up. Eyes which do not develop ROP can have poor visual outcome and need to be assessed within the 1st year of life.

KEYWORDS:

Cohort; myopia; preterm; retinopathy of prematurity

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