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Leukemia. 2019 May;33(5):1273-1277. doi: 10.1038/s41375-019-0419-7. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Impact of prior diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy on outcomes in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

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Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.


Multiple myeloma (MM) is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering myeloma (SMM), or solitary plasmacytoma (SPC). There is a lack of data regarding impact of these pre-existing monoclonal gammopathies (MGs) on MM outcomes. Patients with prior diagnosis of MGUS, SMM, or PC from 1973 to 2015 (cases) were identified from our institution's database and compared to those without a known MG (controls). The primary outcome of interest was overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis was performed to ascertain factors impacting all-cause mortality. We identified 774 patients with a prior diagnosis of MGUS, SMM or SPC (cases) and a control population (1:2) matched for the year of diagnosis (nā€‰=ā€‰1548). After a median follow-up of 81 months, the cases showed a longer median OS than the controls (71 months vs. 56 months). The improved OS was limited to those with a known prior diagnosis of SMM (80 months) and SPC (95 months), compared to MGUS (60 months). Multivariable analysis revealed that MM patients with known prior MG had less overall mortality than those without, and this was limited to prior SMM/SPC group (HR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93), as compared to the MGUS group (HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.66-1.05).


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