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Environ Int. 2019 May;126:96-106. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.037. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

The effects of firework regulation on air quality and public health during the Chinese Spring Festival from 2013 to 2017 in a Chinese megacity.

Author information

1
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
2
Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, Shanghai 200235, China.
3
Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, Shanghai 200235, China. Electronic address: qingyanf@semc.gov.cn.
4
Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233, China.
5
School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
6
Yellow River Shandong Bureau, Jinan 250000, China.
7
Institute of Eco-Chongming, 3663 Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062, China.
8
Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China.
9
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; Institute of Eco-Chongming, 3663 Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address: jmchen@fudan.edu.cn.

Abstract

Fireworks displays are a traditional form of celebration during the Chinese Spring Festival (Festival). In response to the heavy air pollution caused by fireworks, Shanghai, a megacity in China, has imposed regulatory measures on the use of fireworks in recent years. To investigate air quality trends before and after firework regulation was established and quantify its efficiency, gaseous pollutants, PM2.5 levels, and PM2.5 chemical composition were synchronously measured at 1 h time intervals at an urban site and a suburban site in Shanghai in the period during and around the Festival from 2013 to 2017. PM2.5 concentrations at the urban site during the Festival over the five-year period were 79 (max: 524), 94 (290), 53 (163), 50 (146) and 32 (156) μg/m3, respectively, presenting a decreasing trend at a rate of -13.8 μg/m3/yr (p = 0.05). K+ concentrations, which serve as a tracer of fireworks, were 8.2 (max: 159.4), 2.5 (14.6), 2.2 (10.4), 4.3 (44.2) and 0.8 (4.5) μg/m3 during the Festival from 2013 to 2017, respectively, and thus decreased at a rate of -1.3 μg/m3/yr (p = 0.17). Accordingly, fireworks contributed 41 (51.9%), 38 (36.5%), 6 (10.3%), 21 (35.6%), and 4 μg/m3 (12.1%) to PM2.5, respectively, implying the effectiveness of firework regulation in Shanghai. Health effects attributed to PM2.5 pollution in Shanghai during the Festival were assessed based on Poisson regression. The number of premature deaths related to short-term PM2.5 exposure in Shanghai during the Festival from 2013 to 2017 was 75 (95% CI: 27, 108), 92 (30, 129), 55 (18, 76), 49 (19, 70), and 31 (12, 45), respectively. Daily mortality due to PM2.5 exposure during the Festival from 2013 to 2017 accounted for 1.4-3.8% of total daily mortality in Shanghai. This study provides scientific evidence of air quality improvement and the effectiveness of firework regulation in Shanghai.

KEYWORDS:

Air pollution; Fireworks; Health effects; Shanghai

PMID:
30784805
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.037
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