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Indian J Pharmacol. 2018 Nov-Dec;50(6):309-319. doi: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_11_18.

Neuroprotective effect of solanesol against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like behavioral, biochemical, and cellular alterations: Restoration of coenzyme-Q10-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.

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Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India.
Department of Pharmacology, Rajendra Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sirsa, Haryana, India.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PDM University, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India.



The aim of the present study was to evaluate the solanesol (SNL)-mediated coenzyme-Q10 restoration to ameliorate 3-nitropropionic (3-NP)-induced behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes which resemble Huntington's disease (HD)-like symptoms in men.


Various behavioral and biochemical parameters were carried out to evaluate the activity of SNL on 3-NP-treated rats. To determine the therapeutic significance of SNL on HD, different behavioral tests such as memory task, locomotor activity, grip strength, and beam cross and some biochemical test along with histopathological findings were done.


Chronic 3-NP, 10 mg/kg i.p., caused physical and mental abnormalities in animals, including memory impairment, weak grip strength, abnormal posture, and cognitive deficit. Biochemical analysis of brain homogenate in 3-NP-treated rats showed altered mitochondrial complexes, oxidative stress, and elevated lipid biomarkers. Neurohistological alterations of hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex of 3-NP-treated rats exhibit severe neuronal space, irregular damaged cells, and dense pyknotic nuclei-associated marked focal diffused gliosis. SNL administered for 15 days significantly improved motor performance and cognitive behavior task and restored the histopathological changes. Further, SNL treatment significantly improved mitochondrial complexes such as coenzyme-Q10 enzyme activity and attenuated inflammatory and oxidative damage of rat brain.


In the present research work, SNL (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg p.o.) provided notable neuroprotective effect, which was confirmed by behavioral paradigms and biochemical test. It restored the behavioral and biochemical alteration caused by 3-NP and confirmed the strong neuroprotective mechanism of SNL in 3-NP-intoxicated memory and cognitive abnormalities.


3-nitropropionic acid; Coenzyme-Q10; Huntington's disease; mitochondrial dysfunction; solanesol

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