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Hypertension. 2019 Apr;73(4):859-867. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12373.

Effect of Morning Exercise With or Without Breaks in Prolonged Sitting on Blood Pressure in Older Overweight/Obese Adults.

Author information

1
From the School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), University of Western Australia, Perth (M.J.W., D.W.D., L.H.N., D.J.G.).
2
Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (M.J.W., D.W.D., E.C., S.P., G.L., P.C.D., B.A.K.).
3
Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria (D.W.D., E.C.).
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (K.A.E.).
5
School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong (E.C.).
6
Iverson Health Innovation Research Institute and School of Health Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (S.P., G.L.).
7
Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (P.C.D.).

Abstract

Both exercise and breaks in prolonged sitting can reduce blood pressure (BP) in older overweight/obese adults. We investigated whether there is an additive hypotensive effect when exercise is combined with subsequent breaks in sitting. Sex differences and changes in plasma catecholamines as a potential candidate mechanism underlying BP responses were also examined. Sedentary older adults (n=67; 67±7 years; 31.2±4.1 kg/m2) completed 3 conditions in random order-sitting (SIT): uninterrupted sitting (8 hours, control); exercise+sitting (EX+SIT): sitting (1 hour), moderate-intensity walking (30 minutes), uninterrupted sitting (6.5 hours); exercise+breaks (EX+BR): sitting (1 hour), moderate-intensity walking (30 minutes), sitting interrupted every 30 minutes with 3 minutes of light-intensity walking (6.5 hours). Serial BP and plasma epinephrine/norepinephrine measurements occurred during 8 hours. The 8-hour average systolic and diastolic BP (mm Hg 95% CI) was lower in EX+SIT -3.4 (-4.5 to -2.3), -0.8 (-1.6 to -0.04), and EX+BR -5.1 (-6.2 to -4.0), -1.1 (-1.8 to -0.3), respectively, relative to SIT (all P <0.05). There was an additional reduction in average systolic BP of -1.7 (-2.8 to -0.6) in EX+BR relative to EX+SIT ( P=0.003). This additional reduction in systolic BP was driven by women -3.2 (-4.7 to -1.7; P<0.001 EX+BR versus EX+SIT). Average epinephrine decreased in EX+SIT and EX+BR in women (-13% to -12%) but increased in men (+12% to +23%), respectively, relative to SIT ( P<0.05). No differences in average norepinephrine were observed. Morning exercise reduces BP during a period of 8 hours in older overweight/obese adults compared with prolonged sitting. Combining exercise with regular breaks in sitting may be of more benefit for lowering BP in women than in men. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12614000737639.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; exercise; obesity; sedentary behavior; sex characteristics

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