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Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2019 Oct;44(10):1033-1042. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0004. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Time course of recovery is similar for the back squat, bench press, and deadlift in well-trained males.

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Florida Atlantic University, Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Muscle Physiology Laboratory, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA.
Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), AUT University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand.


This study examined the time course of recovery following resistance exercise sessions in the back squat, bench press, and deadlift. Twelve well-trained males (age: 24.5 ± 3.8 years, body mass: 84.01 ± 15.44 kg, training age: 7.1 ± 4.2 years) performed 4 sets to failure at 80% of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) on the squat, bench press, and deadlift in successive weeks. The bench press was always performed in week 2 with the squat and deadlift order counterbalanced between weeks 1 and 3. Indirect muscle damage and performance fatigue was assessed immediately before and after exercise and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h postexercise. Outcome measures included limb swelling, joint range of motion, delayed onset muscle soreness, average concentric velocity (ACV) at 70% of 1RM, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Most measures demonstrated a main time effect (p < 0.05) within conditions; however, no between condition (p > 0.05) differences existed. ACV decreased in the squat condition for up to 72 h (p = 0.02, -8.61%) and in the bench press (p < 0.01, -26.69%) immediately postexercise but did not decline during the deadlift condition (p > 0.05). There was a main time effect for increased cfDNA in the squat (p < 0.01) and bench press (p < 0.05), but not the deadlift (p = 0.153). Further, immediately postexercise increases in cfDNA were directly related (p < 0.05) to changes in ACV in all 3 conditions. These results suggest that the deadlift does not result in greater muscle damage and recovery time than the squat and bench press following volume-type training in well-trained men. Further, acute changes in cfDNA may predict performance during the recovery period.


dommages musculaires; entraînement à la force; exercices de résistance; fatigue; muscle damage; performance; programme; programming; resistance exercise; strength training


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