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N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 28;380(9):811-821. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1812405. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Bag-Mask Ventilation during Tracheal Intubation of Critically Ill Adults.

Author information

1
From the Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine (J.D.C., R.M.B., B.E.H., M.G.L., A.H.T., T.W.R., M.W.S.), and the Department of Emergency Medicine (W.H.S.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; the Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Allergy and Immunology (D.R.J.), and the Section of Emergency Medicine (D.J.V.), Louisiana State University School of Medicine-New Orleans, and the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ochsner Health System (D.J.V., K.M.D.) - both in New Orleans; the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (D.W.R., A.N.Z., S.G.); and the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (A.M.J.) and the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care (I.B.), University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypoxemia is the most common complication during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults and may increase the risk of cardiac arrest and death. Whether positive-pressure ventilation with a bag-mask device (bag-mask ventilation) during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults prevents hypoxemia without increasing the risk of aspiration remains controversial.

METHODS:

In a multicenter, randomized trial conducted in seven intensive care units in the United States, we randomly assigned adults undergoing tracheal intubation to receive either ventilation with a bag-mask device or no ventilation between induction and laryngoscopy. The primary outcome was the lowest oxygen saturation observed during the interval between induction and 2 minutes after tracheal intubation. The secondary outcome was the incidence of severe hypoxemia, defined as an oxygen saturation of less than 80%.

RESULTS:

Among the 401 patients enrolled, the median lowest oxygen saturation was 96% (interquartile range, 87 to 99) in the bag-mask ventilation group and 93% (interquartile range, 81 to 99) in the no-ventilation group (P = 0.01). A total of 21 patients (10.9%) in the bag-mask ventilation group had severe hypoxemia, as compared with 45 patients (22.8%) in the no-ventilation group (relative risk, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 0.77). Operator-reported aspiration occurred during 2.5% of intubations in the bag-mask ventilation group and during 4.0% in the no-ventilation group (P = 0.41). The incidence of new opacity on chest radiography in the 48 hours after tracheal intubation was 16.4% and 14.8%, respectively (P = 0.73).

CONCLUSIONS:

Among critically ill adults undergoing tracheal intubation, patients receiving bag-mask ventilation had higher oxygen saturations and a lower incidence of severe hypoxemia than those receiving no ventilation. (Funded by Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; PreVent ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03026322.).

PMID:
30779528
PMCID:
PMC6423976
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1812405
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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