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Benef Microbes. 2019 Apr 19;10(3):279-291. doi: 10.3920/BM2018.0098. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Prebiotic oligosaccharides in early life alter gut microbiome development in male mice while supporting influenza vaccination responses.

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1 Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, Gate 7 Victoria University, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6012, New Zealand.
2 Danone Nutricia Research, Departments of Immunology/Microbiology/Human Milk Research, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584 CT Utrecht, the Netherlands.
3 Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, the Netherlands.
4 Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands.
5 University Medical Center Utrecht, The Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.


Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, mice were supplemented with the prebiotic milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) as well as a complex mixture of immune modulatory prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) from different stages in early life. Adult mice were vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and both development of the gut microbiota and antibody-mediated vaccine responses were followed over time. Within the control group, female mice demonstrated a larger antibody response to TIV vaccination than male mice, which was accompanied by enhanced cytokine production by splenocytes and a higher percentage of plasma cells in skin draining lymph nodes. In addition, the prebiotic diet improved vaccine-specific antibody responses in male mice. Introduction of prebiotics into the diet modulated the gut microbiota composition and at the genus level several bacterial groups showed a significant interaction effect which potentially contributed to the immunological effects observed. This study provides insight in the effect of scGOS/lcFOS/2'FL in influenza vaccination antibody production.


HMOS; TIV; antibody; gender; microbiota


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