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Microbes Environ. 2019 Feb 15. doi: 10.1264/jsme2.ME18076. [Epub ahead of print]

Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia are Predominant Soybean Rhizobial Genera in Venezuelan Soils in Different Climatic and Topographical Regions.

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United Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT).
Institute for Advanced Studies (IDEA).
National Laboratory of Biofertilizer (INSAI).
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology.
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT).
Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University.


The climate, topography, fauna, and flora of Venezuela are highly diverse. However, limited information is currently available on the characterization of soybean rhizobia in Venezuela. To clarify the physiological and genetic diversities of soybean rhizobia in Venezuela, soybean root nodules were collected from 11 soil types located in different topographical regions. A total of 395 root nodules were collected and 120 isolates were obtained. All isolates were classified in terms of stress tolerance under different concentrations of NaCl and Al3+. The tolerance levels of isolates to NaCl and Al3+ varied. Based on sampling origins and stress tolerance levels, 44 isolates were selected for further characterization. An inoculation test indicated that all isolates showed the capacity for root nodulation on soybean. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), 20 isolates were classified into the genera Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. The remaining 24 isolates were classified into the genus Burkholderia or Paraburkholderia. There is currently no evidence to demonstrate that the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia are the predominant soybean rhizobia in agricultural fields. Of the 24 isolates classified in (Para) Burkholderia, the nodD-nodB intergenic spacer regions of 10 isolates and the nifH gene sequences of 17 isolates were closely related to the genera Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, respectively. The root nodulation numbers of five (Para) Burkholderia isolates were higher than those of the 20 α-rhizobia. Furthermore, among the 44 isolates tested, one Paraburkholderia isolate exhibited the highest nitrogen-fixation activity in root nodules.


Bradyrhizobium ; Burkholderia ; Rhizobium ; Venezuela; soybean rhizobia

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