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Chronobiol Int. 2019 Apr;36(4):541-547. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2018.1564323. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Mindfulness and self-compassion along the chronotype: a cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
a Education and Psychology , University of Aveiro , Aveiro , Portugal.
2
b CINEICC - Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences , University of Coimbra , Coimbra , Portugal.
3
c Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences , Universidade de Coimbra , Coimbra , Portugal.
4
d CINEICC - Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences , Universidade de Coimbra , Coimbra , Portugal.
5
e Factulty of Psychology and Educational Sciences , Universidade de Coimbra (University of Coimbra) , Coimbra , Portugal.
6
f Factulty of Psychology and Educational Sciences , Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center [CINEICC, FCT R&D Unit] , Coimbra , Portugal.
7
g Research Centre Didactics and Technology in the Education of Trainers (CIDTFF) , University of Aveiro , Aveiro , Portugal.

Abstract

It is well established in the literature that morning-type individuals present better health indicators than evening-types. Mindfulness is considered an adaptive self-regulation skill associated with well-being and physical and mental health. However, there is scarce studies that relate chronotype and mindfulness. Thus, in this research, our aim was to study the relationship between chronotype and mindfulness-related variables. For this purpose, a sample composed of 483 participants from the community was recruited through an online survey and invited to fill out the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Composite Morningness Scale. Regarding mindfulness measure, the results indicated that morning-types presented higher levels of "acting with awareness" than intermediate and evening-types. Additionally, as to self-compassion measure, morning-types presented higher levels of "mindfulness" and "overall self-compassion" than intermediate and evening-types. The remaining associations examined were not statistically significant. In sum, the morning-types showed higher scores in some of the mindfulness and self-compassion scales which seem to suggest that this morningness tendency may function as protective factor concerning eventual disorders┬┤ development. Nonetheless, more systematic studies are needed to better understand this association and subsequently foster changes for psychological intervention.

KEYWORDS:

Chronotype; mindfulness; morningness/eveningness; self-compassion; sleep

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