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Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Apr;81:176-183. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.02.003. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Acute Respiratory Illness in Rural Haiti.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Hematology Oncology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington DC, USA. Electronic address: ykim2@childrensnational.org.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Randall Children's Hospital Legacy Health, Portland, OR, USA.
4
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Christianville Foundation School, Gressier, Haiti.
5
Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
6
University of Florida, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gainesville, FL, USA.
7
Department of Biostatistics and Emerging Pathogens Institute, College of Public Health and Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
8
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
9
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
10
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
11
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Health Services Research, Management and Policy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is the most common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including Haiti. Our objective was to detect pathogens found in children with ARI in rural Haiti to help develop evidence-based guidelines for treatment and prevention.

METHODS:

Retrospective study of students with ARI at four schools in rural Haiti. Viral and/or bacterial pathogens were identified by qPCR in 177 nasal swabs collected from April 2013 through November 2015.

RESULTS:

Most common viruses detected were Rhinovirus (36%), Influenza A (16%) and Adenovirus (7%), and bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae (58%) and Staphylococcus aureus (28%). Compared to older children, children aged 3-5 years had more Influenza A (28% vs. 9%, p=0.002) and Adenovirus detected (14% vs. 3%, p=0.01). Similarly, S. pneumoniae was greatest in children 3-5 years old (71% 3-5yrs; 58% 6-15 years; 25% 16-20 years; p=0.008). Children 3-10 years old presented with fever more than children 11-20 years old (22% vs 7%; p=0.02) and were more often diagnosed with pneumonia (28% vs 4%, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Younger children had increased fever, pneumonia, and detection of Influenza A and S. pneumoniae. These data support the need for influenza and pneumococcus vaccination in early childhood in Haiti.

KEYWORDS:

Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI); Children; Haiti; Outpatient; Rural

PMID:
30772468
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijid.2019.02.003
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