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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 14;20(4). pii: E827. doi: 10.3390/ijms20040827.

GmZPR3d Interacts with GmHD-ZIP III Proteins and Regulates Soybean Root and Nodule Vascular Development.

Author information

1
Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. sureshd@wustl.edu.
2
Department of Biology, Washington Univeristy in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. sureshd@wustl.edu.
3
Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. amelie2807@hotmail.com.
4
Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique, Avenue de l'Agrobiopole, BP32607 Auzeville-Tolosane, France. amelie2807@hotmail.com.
5
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Juan.xie@sdstate.edu.
6
Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. qin.ma@sdstate.edu.
7
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. qin.ma@sdstate.edu.
8
Hybrigenics Services, 3-5 Impasse Reille, 75014 Paris, France. hindie.valerie@gmail.com.
9
Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Senthil.subramanian@sdstate.edu.
10
Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Senthil.subramanian@sdstate.edu.

Abstract

Fabaceans produce two major classes of symbiotic nodules: the indeterminate type characterized by a persistent meristem, and the determinate type that lacks a persistent meristem. The class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) transcription factor family influence development of multiple lateral organs and meristem maintenance, but their role in determinate nodule development is not known. HD-ZIP III protein activity is post-translationally regulated by members of the small leucine zipper protein (ZPR) family in arabidopsis. We characterized the ZPR gene family in soybean and evaluated their ability to interact with two key members of GmHD-ZIP III family through yeast two-hybrid assays. GmZPR3d displayed the strongest interaction with GmHD-ZIP III-2 among the different pairs evaluated. GmHD-ZIP III-1, -2, and GmZPR3d showed overlapping expression patterns in the root stele and in nodule parenchyma tissues. Over-expression of GmZPR3d resulted in ectopic root secondary xylem formation, and enhanced expression of vessel-specific master switch genes in soybean. The nodules in ZPR3d over-expressing roots were larger in size, had a relatively larger central zone and displayed increased nodule vascular branching. The results from this study point to a key role for GmZPR3d in soybean root and nodule development.

KEYWORDS:

HD-ZIP III; ZPR; nodule; soybean; vasculature development; yeast two-hybrid

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