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Cancers (Basel). 2019 Feb 14;11(2). pii: E217. doi: 10.3390/cancers11020217.

The Phylogeographic Diversity of EBV and Admixed Ancestry in the Americas⁻Another Model of Disrupted Human-Pathogen Co-Evolution.

Author information

1
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. acorvalan@uc.cl.
2
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. acorvalan@uc.cl.
3
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. jennyruedlinger@gmail.com.
4
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. jennyruedlinger@gmail.com.
5
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. tomasdemayo@gmail.com.
6
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. tomasdemayo@gmail.com.
7
Faculty of Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidad Mayor, Santiago 7510041, Chile. tomasdemayo@gmail.com.
8
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. iva.polakovicova@email.cz.
9
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. iva.polakovicova@email.cz.
10
Program of Human Genetics, Instituto Ciencias Biomedicas, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile. patriciogonzalez@uchile.cl.
11
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile. faguayo@med.uchile.cl.
12
Department of Basic and Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile. faguayo@med.uchile.cl.

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an etiological agent for gastric cancer with significant worldwide variations. Molecular characterizations of EBV have shown phylogeographical variations among healthy populations and in EBV-associated diseases, particularly the cosegregated BamHI-I fragment and XhoI restriction site of exon 1 of the LMP-1 gene. In the Americas, both cosegregated variants are present in EBV carriers, which aligns with the history of Asian and European human migration to this continent. Furthermore, novel recombinant variants have been found, reflecting the genetic makeup of this continent. However, in the case of EBV-associated gastric cancer (EBV-associated GC), the cosegregated European BamHI-"i" fragment and XhoI restriction site strain prevails. Thus, we propose that a disrupted coevolution between viral phylogeographical strains and mixed human ancestry in the Americas might explain the high prevalence of this particular gastric cancer subtype. This cosegregated region contains two relevant transcripts for EBV-associated GC, the BARF-1 and miR-BARTs. Thus, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or targeted sequencing of both transcripts may be required to clarify their role as a potential source of this disrupted coevolution.

KEYWORDS:

Epstein-Barr Virus; gastric cancer; human ancestry; viral phylogeography

PMID:
30769835
DOI:
10.3390/cancers11020217
Free PMC Article

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