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J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):78-84. doi: 10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_166_18.

Diagnostic Yield and Complication of Frameless Stereotactic Brain Biopsy.

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Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand.



With the advancement of neuronavigation technologies, frameless stereotactic brain biopsy has been developed. Previous studies proved that frameless stereotactic brain biopsy was as effective and safe as frame-based stereotactic brain biopsy. The authors aimed to find the factors associated with diagnostic yield and complication rate of frameless intracranial biopsy.

Materials and Methods:

Frameless stereotactic brain biopsy procedures, between March 2009 and April 2017, were retrospectively reviewed from medical records including imaging studies. Using logistic regression analysis, various factors were analyzed for association with diagnostic yield and postoperative complications.


Eighty-nine frameless stereotactic brain biopsy procedures were performed on 85 patients. The most common pathology was primary central nervous system lymphoma (43.8%), followed by low-grade glioma (15.7%), and high-grade glioma (15%), respectively. The diagnostic yield was 87.6%. Postoperative intracerebral hematoma occurred in 19% of cases; however, it was symptomatic in only one case. The size of the lesion was associated with both diagnostic yield and postoperative intracerebral hematoma complication. Lesions, larger than 3 cm in diameter, were associated with a higher rate of positive biopsy result (P = 0.01). Lesion 3 cm or smaller than 3 cm in diameter, and intraoperative bleeding associated with a higher percentage of postoperative intracerebral hematoma complications (P = 0.01).


For frameless stereotactic brain biopsy, the size of the lesion is the essential factor determining diagnostic yield and postoperative intracerebral hematoma complication.


Diagnostic yield; frameless stereotactic brain biopsy; neuronavigation

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