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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 Apr;63(7):e1800967. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201800967. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

A Whole-Grain Diet Increases Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Independent of Gut Hormones in Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.
2
Department of Kinesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA.
3
Department of Health and Human Performance, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, 44115, USA.
4
Institute of Food Safety and Analytical Sciences, Nestlé Research Center, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.
5
Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmersplatsen 4, 412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden.
6
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70808, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The effect of whole-grain (WG) versus refined-grain (RG) diets on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell function is unclear.

METHODS:

In a double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial, 13 prediabetic adults (37.2 ± 1.8 y, BMI: 33.6 ± 1.4 kg m-2 , 2 h glucose: 146.9 ± 11.6 mg dL-1 ) are provided isocaloric-matched WG and RG diets for 8-weeks each, with an 8-10 week washout between diets. Glucose, insulin, and C-peptide are studied over 240 min following a 75 g OGTT. Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), PYY, and total ghrelin are assessed at 0, 30, and 60 min. Mixed-meal diets for carbohydrate (54%), fat (28%), and protein (18%) contain either WG (50 g/1000 kcal) or equivalent RG.

RESULTS:

Both diets induce fat loss (≈2 kg). While neither diet impacts early phase GSIS, the WG diet increases total GSIS (iAUC of C-peptide0-240 /Glc0-240 , p = 0.02) and β-cell function (disposition index; GSIS × insulin sensitivity, p = 0.02). GIP and PYY are unaltered by either diet, but GLP-1 is higher at 30 min following RG versus WG (p = 0.04). Ghrelin levels are higher at 60 min of the OGTT following both interventions (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSION:

A WG-rich diet increases β-cell function independent of gut hormones in adults with prediabetes.

KEYWORDS:

alkylresorcinols; glucose tolerance; insulin; low-glycemic diet; obesity

PMID:
30763457
PMCID:
PMC6559794
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1002/mnfr.201800967

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